Dating coptic crosses
Dating coptic crosses
Both compositions and improvisations in traditional Arabic music are based on the maqam system.Maqams can be realized with either vocal or instrumental music, and do not include a rhythmic component.
The English words lute, rebec, organ and naker are derived from Arabic oud, rabab, urghun and nagqara'.
It was believed that Jinns revealed poems to poets and music to musicians.
The Choir at the time served as a pedagogic facility where the educated poets would recite their poems.
Ezra Pound, in his Canto VIII, famously declared that William of Aquitaine, an early troubador, "had brought the song up out of Spain / with the singers and veils...".
In his study, Lévi-Provençal is said to have found four Arabo-Hispanic verses nearly or completely recopied in William's manuscript.
Certainly "a body of song of comparable intensity, profanity and eroticism [existed] in Arabic from the second half of the 9th century onwards."One possible theory on the origins of the Western Solfège musical notation suggests that it may have had Arabic origins.
It has been argued that the Solfège syllables (do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti) may have been derived from the syllables of the Arabic solmization system Durr-i-Mufassal ("Separated Pearls") (dal, ra, mim, fa, sad, lam).A number of musical instruments used in classical music are believed to have been derived from Arabic musical instruments: the lute was derived from the Oud, the rebec (ancestor of violin) from the rebab, the guitar from qitara, which in turn was derived from the Persian Tar, naker from naqareh, adufe from al-duff, alboka from al-buq, anafil from al-nafir, exabeba from al-shabbaba (flute), atabal (bass drum) from al-tabl, atambal from al-tinbal, the balaban, the castanet from kasatan, sonajas de azófar from sunuj al-sufr, the conical bore wind instruments, the xelami from the sulami or fistula (flute or musical pipe), the shawm and dulzaina from the reed instruments zamr and al-zurna, the gaita from the ghaita, rackett from iraqya or iraqiyya, geige (violin) from ghichak, and the theorbo from the tarab. Whether these links between European instruments and Oriental instruments are more than etymological is not known but is likely to be nothing more than that.The music of the troubadors may have had some Arabic origins.Among the notable songs of the period were the "huda" from which the ghina' derived, the nasb, sanad, and rukbani' Arabic maqam is the system of melodic modes used in traditional Arabic music, which is mainly melodic.The word maqam in Arabic means "station" and denotes a melody type built on a scale and carrying a tradition that defines its habitual phrases, important notes, melodic development and modulation.Singing was not thought to be the work of these intellectuals and was instead entrusted to women with beautiful voices (i.e.