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The National University of San Marcos, founded on May 12, 1551 during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
The city slopes gently from the shores of the Pacific Ocean into valleys and mountain slopes located as high as 1,550 meters (5,090 ft) above sea level.
According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants.
However, even before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq (Limaq, pronounced , which means "talker" or "speaker" in the coastal Quechua that was the area's primary language before the Spanish arrival).
It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean.
Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area.
Faced with a naval blockade and the action of guerrillas on land, Viceroy José de la Serna e Hinojosa evacuated its capital in July 1821 to save the Royalist army.
After independence, Lima became the capital of the Republic of Peru but economic stagnation and political turmoil brought urban development to a halt.This hiatus ended in the 1850s, when increased public and private revenues from guano exports led to a rapid development of the city.The city underwent renewal and expansion from the 1890s to the 1920s.This oracle was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq.The anthem was created by Luis Enrique Tord (lyrics), Euding Maeshiro (music) and record producer Ricardo Núñez (arranger).