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Availability of food grains, per capita expenditure on food. Feeding of calves, pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls. 2.8 Physiology of Milk Production, Reproduction and Digestion- Current status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection, Male and Female reproductive organs, their components and functions. 2.9 Environmental Physiology- Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms involved in animal behaviour, climatology – various parameters and their importance. Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better conception. Dairying under mixed arming and as specialized farming, economic dairy farming. 2.7 Growth and Animal Production Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, growth curves, measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality. Deep freezing techniques in cows, sheep, goats, swine and poultry. Livestock Production and Management: 4.1 Commercial Dairy Farming Comparison of dairy farming in India with advanced countries.
Formulation of rations for different classes of layers and broilers. Animal Physiology: 2.1 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion. 2.2 Blood constituents Properties and functions-blood cell formation Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistryplasma proteins production, classification and properties, coagulation of blood Haemorrhagic disorders-anticoagulants-blood groups-Blood volume Plasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood. UPSC GUJARATI OPTIONAL SYLLABUS PAPER I (Answers must be written in Gujarati) Section-A Gujarati Language : Form and history 1. Significant features of the Gujarati language: Phonology, morphology and syntax. Major dialects: Surti, Pattani, charotari and Saurashtri.
Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to selection and their relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection; Progeny testing; Methods of selection; Construction of selection indices and their uses; Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods; Indirect selection and correlated response; Inbreeding, out breeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds; Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production; Selection for general and specific combining ability; Breeding for threshold characters. Different Methods adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions.
Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback. Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene: 1.1 Histology and Histological Techniques: Paraffin embedding technique of tissue processing and H. staining – Freezing microtomy- Microscopy Bright field microscope and electron microscope. The following poems : – Looking for a Causim on a Swing – A River – Of Mothers, among other Things – Love Poem for a Wife 1 – Small-Scale Reflections on a Great House – Obituary (All these poems are available in the anthology Ten Twentieth Century Indian Poets, edited by R.
Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion- hormonal receptorsclassification and function. Factors affecting semen production and quality, preservation, composition of diluents, sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen.
2.5 Excretion-Structure and function of kidney-formation of urine-methods of studying renal function-renal regulation of acid-base balance: physiological constituents of urine-renal failure-passive venous congestion-Urinary secretion in chicken-Sweat glands and their function. 2.6 Endocrine glands – Functional disorders their symptoms and diagnosis. Animal Reproduction: Semen quality- Preservation and Artificial Insemination-Components of semen, composition of spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro.
Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, mandibuloalveolar,mental and cornual nerve block.
Regional anatomy of paravertebral nerves, pudendal nerve, median ulnar and radial nerves-tibial,fibular and digital nerves-Cranial nerves-structures involved in epidural anaesthesia-superficial lymph nodes-surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities-comparative features of locomotor apparatus and their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body. Epidemiology and forecasting of major crop pests and diseases. Energy requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool, and meat production. Developing Practical and Economic rations for dairy cattle; supply of greens throughout the year, feed and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm. Systems for pressing energy value of foods in ruminants, pigs and poultry. Use and abuse of growth promoters like hormones and antibiotics – latest concepts. Antinutritional and toxic factors present in livestock feeds. Digestibility trials direct, indirect and indicator methods. Herd recording, budgeting, cost of milk production, pricing policy; Personnel Management. Impact of high yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Important features and scope of various types of forestry plantations such as social forestry, agro-forestry, and natural forests. qualitative traits; Hardy Weinberg Law Population Vs. Marketing management – strategies for development, market intelligence. Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes, socio-economic survey and status of big, small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers. Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in dissemination of Agricultural technologies. Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement. Role of public and private sectors in seed production and marketing. Diagnosis of pests and diseases of field crops, vegetables, orchard and plantation crops and their economic importance. Feeding regimes for young stock and bulls, heifers and breeding animals; new trends in feeding young and adult stock; Feeding records. Agroecology; cropping pattern as indicators of environments. Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Soil conservation, integrated watershed management. Application of principles of plant breeding, improvement of crop plants. Role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Role of genetic engineering and biotechnology in crop improvement. Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy. Major fruits, plantation crops, vegetables, spices and flower crops. 4.3 Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural calamities. Genetics and Animal Breeding: History of animal genetics.