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In essence, hedgelaying consists of cutting most of the way through the stem of each plant near the base, bending it over and interweaving or pleaching it between wooden stakes.
Some hedges date from the Bronze and Iron Ages, 2000–4000 years ago, when traditional patterns of landscape became established.
A hedge may consist of a single species or several, typically mixed at random.
In many newly planted British hedges, at least 60 per cent of the shrubs are hawthorn, blackthorn, and (in the southwest) hazel, alone or in combination.
Trees should be left at no closer than 10 metres (33 ft) apart and the distances should vary so as to create a more natural landscape.
Hedges are recognised as part of a cultural heritage and historical record and for their great value to wildlife and the landscape.
Many other species are used, notably including beech and various nut and fruit trees.
New trees can be established by planting but it is generally more successful to leave standard trees behind when laying hedges.
There are thought to be around 1.8 million hedgerow trees in Britain (counting only those whose canopies do not touch others) with perhaps 98% of these being in England and Wales.
Many hedgerow trees are veteran trees and therefore of great wildlife interest.
A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and/or tree species, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties.
Hedges used to separate a road from adjoining fields or one field from another, and of sufficient age to incorporate larger trees, are known as hedgerows.
Growing out of the wall is a hedge of hawthorn, brambles, vines, and trees, in thickness from one to three feet.