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One and a half decades later, the map of the Islamic worldshowed only a half a dozen of independent states which, with theexception of Turkey, were all ruled by monarchies.
93-94 and Antoine Fleury, Lapénétration allemande au Moyen-Orient 1919-1939.
Ready, The Forgotten Axis: Germany's Partners and Foreign Volunteers in World War II (Jefferson: Mc Farland and Co, 1987).24 Bruno De Cordier Europe, for instance, the Allies and the Communist partisans faced Bosnian Muslims and Uzbeks who fought under German command.
During the Soviet siege of Berlin, remnants of an Arab paratroopercompany and an anti-tank unit from the Northern Caucasus took part inthe defence of the city, or what was left of it.1 Long confined to militaryhistory, the presence of Muslim soldiers in the Reich’s armies and thecontroversial role of pro-German Islamic leaders like the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Al-Husseini are regularly raked up in certain circles todemonize Islam and Muslims.
Keywords • Balkans • collaborationism • Eastern Front • Handschardivision • nationalism • Pan-Turkism • Stalinism • Third Reich •Turkestan Legion • World War II • Yugoslavia “The battleline between good and evil runs through the heart of every man.” Alexander Solzhenitsyn Introduction Few may know that in the final months of World War II, up to a quarterof Germany’s armed forces consisted of so-called “foreign volunteers”and that some of these had a Muslim background.
In Southeastern* Bruno De Cordier is with the Conflict Research Group of Ghent University, Belgium.1 Antonio J. A Study of East European and Middle Eastern Collaboration with Nazi Germany in World War II (New York: Axis Europa books, 2001), p.61 and 233, and Lee J.
Les cas de la Turquie, de l’Iran et del’Afghanistan [German penetration in the Middle East, 1919-1939.
the cases of Turkey, Afghanistan and Iran], Collection de Relations internationales (Geneva: Institut Universitiare de Hautes Etudes Internationales, 1977), pp.
Several majority Muslim states that had formal independence (Iran, Iraqand Arabia) were subject to strong political jockeying by the Europeanpowers (and in the case of Iran also the Soviet Union) and oil companiesor had foreign military bases on their territory (Iraq).
The Muslims of Eurasia and the Balkans were largely incorporated in the Soviet Unionand the then kingdom of Yugoslavia, both states dominated by non-Muslims.
This paperexamines the circumstances and the proportions of wartimecollaborationist movements among Muslims, and compared these tocollaboration among non-Muslim groups in the territories and countriesconcerned.
It thereby focuses on the cases of the Central Asian Turkestan Legion of the Wehrmacht and of the Bosnian Handschar division of the Waffen-SS.
4 After a long period of decline, the Ottoman empire, the lastinter-continental Islamic power that exerted control over much of North Africa, the Balkans and the Middle East at one time, had been abolished2 For an example, see Serge Trifković, “Islam’s Nazi Connections”, Front Page Magazine, December 5, 2002.3 For a critical discussion of the concept of “Islamo-Fascism”, see Stefan Durand,“Fascisme, islam et grossiers amalgames. ],” Le Monde diplomatique, November 2006, ) (March 10, 2010).4 General overview maps can be found in Philippe Rekacewicz, Le hold-up colonial [Thecolonial robbery], Atlas du Monde diplomatique 2003 (Paris: Armand Collin, 2003), p.