Puma dating code
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The MP analysis was conducted by a general heuristic search using simple sequence addition of sequences and tree bisection-reconnection branch swapping.
Although the event would suggest that modern pumas originated from a North American ancestry, the puma fossil record in South America is so poor that a more recent neotropical origin and northward dispersal cannot be ruled out (Kurten 1976; Werdelin 1989). schorgeri) are presumed extinct, and three subspecies (P. Consistency of the genetic/phylogenetic results with each category of genetic markers offers confidence in subspecies classification and has implications for natural history and present conservation management of the puma.Pumas (also called mountain lions, or cougars) occupy a vast range of ecological zones (Figure 1A) as diverse as desert, savannah, tropical rain forest, and alpine steppes (Anderson 1983; Hansen 1992). Here we examine the extent of genetic diversity using three groups of genetic markers (mt DNA coding genes, Y-chromosome Zfy intron sequence, and 10 nuclear feline microsatellite loci) among 315 individual pumas: 261 contemporary animals and 54 museum specimens, each of known geographic origin representing 31 of 32 named subspecies.Adult size varies from 50 to 70 kg at the equator to twice that size in the extreme reaches of the Canadian Yukon and Patagonian pampas. brownii) are classified as endangered or threatened by the U. The pattern of variation within and among subspecies was employed to verify phylogeographic subdivision and to interpret the natural history of the species.The marked uniformity of mt DNA and a reduction in microsatellite allele size expansion indicates that North American pumas derive from a recent (late Pleistocene circa 10,000 years ago) replacement and recolonization by a small number of founders who themselves originated from a centrum of puma genetic diversity in eastern South America 200,000-300,000 years ago.The recolonization of North American pumas was coincident with a massive late Pleistocene extinction event that eliminated 80% of large vertebrates in North America and may have extirpated pumas from that continent as well.Some 32 separate geographic subspecies of puma have been described based on geographic and morphometric criteria (Figure 1A) (Neff 1983; Young and Goldman 1946). Captive animals were wild born and of known geographic origin.
Samples were assigned to the nearest subspecies based on geographic location (Cabrera 1963; Jackson 1955; Neff 1983; Young and Goldman 1946).
An iterative process whereby each successive ML tree incorporated parameters estimated from the preceeding ML analysis continued until an optimal tree was consistently derived.
Relationships among mt DNA haplotypes were estimated using a minimum spanning network, computed from the absolute number of differences between haplotypes using the program MINSPNET (Excoffier et al. The terminal intron of Zfy, located on the Y chromosome, was examined in 14 representative male pumas (and one female for a negative control).
Concordance among the resultant topologies was considered to be strong support for the observed phylogeny.
NJ trees were generated with the Tajima-Nei distance estimates and a general heuristic search with tree bisection-reconnection branch swapping.
SSCP analyses were performed on mt DNA amplification products from contemporary samples (Orita et al. The PCR product was denatured at 95C and electrophoresed on a 4.5% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel with 10% glycerol at 60 W for 6 h.