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Computer scientists have created computer languages by storing information that instructs which logic gates should handle which further information under which conditions, and computer programs are created using these computer languages.Input to the computer, such as by the mouse and keyboard, gets converted into information that is then processed by logic gates.
The NSA is advising companies building new systems to use algorithms safe against quantum computers.
You can think of a logic gate as a magical wizard that takes some combination of unicorns and fairies and combines each pair into either one unicorn or one fairy, according to his perverse wizarding rules. We’ll examine AND gates and OR gates to get a sense for how logic gates work.
The AND gate will output a “1” if both of the input bits are “1,” but will output a “0” otherwise: An AND gate is similar to a hallway with 2 doors – both doors need to be unlocked for you to be able to pass through.
The bad news is that we don’t have any algorithms that we know are safe, only ones that we think are safe. Currently, scientific simulations face a major tradeoff: The most accurate techniques for simulating materials involve simulating all atoms and electrons according to quantum mechanical rules.
So the NSA is telling companies to use algorithms “believed to be safe.” Yikes. Unfortunately, this is impractical for all but the smallest systems (meaning a few atoms).
In the rest of this post, I’m going to attempt to clear up some of the confusion on the topic. The best starting place to understand quantum computers is to first get baseline understanding of classical computers (“classical computers” is a fancy way of saying “computers that are not quantum computers,” or what normal people simply call “computers”). Google Dictionary tells me that the definition of a computer is “an electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in binary form, according to instructions given to it in a variable program.” Google also tells me that “ultraportable” and “puter” are synonyms for computer.
I’ve literally never heard either of those words before, so I think Google might just be messing with me.
Since most diseases and aging occur on the subcellular scale, the ability to understand this scale with accurate simulations – and to manipulate matter on this scale with specially designed molecules – could enable us to create cures we can only dream of today.
Unfortunately, not a lot has been written about quantum computers in an easy to understand manner. Despite being quite versatile, they’re actually pretty simple.
For instance, “A” can be encoded by “01000001,” “B” by “01000010,” and so on.
Of course, computers do much more than just store information – they also process it in desired ways, using “logic gates.” A logic gate takes two bits of information as input and outputs one bit.
Public-key cryptography often relies on this fact for ensuring computer security.