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By about 680, it had revived sufficiently to become a major port, although there is little evidence of large-scale production of goods.
London then grew slowly until about 950, after which activity increased dramatically.
This was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into West Germanic, the ancestor-language of English, already before English had become widely spoken in Britain.
However, the etymology and original meaning of the British Celtic form is much debated.
A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *(p)lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford".
Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London; from this, the settlement gained the Celtic form of its name, *Lowonidonjon.- ('sink, cause to sink'), combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo- (used to form place-names).
By the 11th century, London was beyond all comparison the largest town in England.
Westminster Abbey, rebuilt in the Romanesque style by King Edward the Confessor, was one of the grandest churches in Europe.In the 16th century William Shakespeare and his contemporaries lived in London at a time of hostility to the development of the theatre.By the end of the Tudor period in 1603, London was still very compact.Upon the re-opening of the Netherlands to English shipping in January 1565, there ensued a strong outburst of commercial activity.Mercantilism grew, and monopoly trading companies such as the East India Company were established, with trade expanding to the New World.There are three recorded Viking assaults on London; two of these were successful, in 851 and 886, although the Vikings were defeated during another attack in 994.