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Defensive ramparts and moats were completed and by 1177 St. Attacks by the Germans continued, and after the original fortress was eventually destroyed by the marauders, islanders replaced it with Copenhagen Castle.
This included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts.Originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century.Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions, defences and armed forces.Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology, pharmaceuticals and clean technology.Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become increasingly integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region.As the fishing industry thrived in Copenhagen, particularly in the trade of herring, the city began expanding to the north of Slotsholmen.
With the establishment of the Kalmar Union (1397–1523) between Denmark, Norway and Sweden, by about 1416 Copenhagen had emerged as the capital of Denmark when Eric of Pomerania moved his seat to Copenhagen Castle.The Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train and Lokaltog (private railway) and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs.To relieve traffic congestion, which is partly the result of increased traffic because of the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned because the narrow 10 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt (Køge Bay) forms a traffic bottleneck.The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles (43 kilometers) northwest of the City Hall Square.Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark and Copenhagen Business School.The literal English translation would be "chapman's haven".