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This document provides a continuation to the document SOUTHERN ITALY (1), and shows nobles families in the southern half of the Italian peninsula in the 11th to 14th centuries, after the fall of the Lombard principalities, in the area of the present-day Italian regions of Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Molise and Puglia.
Descendants of his family have so far been traced in primary sources until the 1130s. "Alexander filius domine Rocce et gener domini Ugonis Clarimontis" with his wife "Avenia" donated property to San Anastasio di Carbone, with the consent of "son seigneur et beau-pre sire Hugues", by charter dated [Sep 1085/Aug 1096], subscribed by "Nicolaus frater domini [Alexandri]".
They were, in turn, followers of the Norman Hauteville dynasty of kings (until the end-12th century), the Hohenstaufen (first half of the 13th century), the Anjou-Capet kings (from 1266), and their Aragonese rivals (from the late-13th century).
As will be seen, control of many of the counties changed with each successive change of dynasty.
The listing refers to many nobles and their castles, including genealogical details which have not been found elsewhere, but names only four counties in the kingdom: Sanseverino, Marsico, Caserta and Apice.
The counties set out in this document are grouped by present-day Italian region.
There were numerous new appointments, and counts were frequently switched from one county to another, or dispossessed entirely as punishment for participation in the numerous rebellions organised against the Norman rulers.
The information in the primary sources about these early Norman nobles is patchy.
The Catalogus records fiefholders in the following named duchies, counties and principalities within the Sicilian kingdom: "ducatus Apuliterr Baricomitatus Gravincomitatus Andricomitatu Cupersaniprincipatu Tarenticomitatus Montis Caveosicomitatus Liciicomitatus Civitatiscomitatu Loritellicomitatus Casertcomitatus Fundanus Domini di Aquinocomitatu Simonis comitis de Sangro".
Other counties which were known before the mid-12th century are also referred to by name, but not as counties, for example Avellino, Marsico and Aversa.
It is noteworthy that the primary sources so far consulted do not mention any counts who were installed on the island of Sicily itself, the territories established on the Italian mainland presumably being less challenging to maintain.
Two comprehensive documents provide an effective census of nobility in the kingdom of Sicily for the mid-12th and mid-13th centuries.
A listing of nobles and their landholdings under the Norman kings is provided by the "Catalogus Baronum", which was compiled under the auspices of Guillaume II "le Bon" King of Sicily.